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handler+executorservice(线程池)+messagequeue方式+缓存模式

更新时间: 2014-05-15 04:17:15 责任编辑: Author_N3

 

Handler+ExecutorService(线程池)+MessageQueue模式+缓存模式
转自:http://www.eoeandroid.com/thread-210082-1-1.html

[size=1.8em]Handler+Runnable模式
我们先看一个并不是异步线程加载的例子,使用 Handler+Runnable模式。
这里为何不是新开线程的原因请参看这篇文章:Android Runnable 运行在那个线程 这里的代码其实是在UI 主线程中下载图片的,而不是新开线程。
我们运行下面代码时,会发现他其实是阻塞了整个界面的显示,需要所有图片都加载完成后,才能显示界面。

package ghj1976.AndroidTest;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URL;
import android.app.Activity;
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.SystemClock;
import android.util.Log;
import android.widget.ImageView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
                super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
                setContentView(R.layout.main);
                loadImage("http://www.baidu.com/img/baidu_logo.gif", R.id.imageView1);
                loadImage(<img id="\"aimg_gHMyP\"" onclick="\"zoom(this," this.src,="" 0,="" 0)\"="" class="\"zoom\"" file="\"http://www.chinatelecom.com.cn/images/logo_new.gif\"" onmouseover="\"img_onmouseoverfunc(this)\"" onload="\"thumbImg(this)\"" border="\"0\"" alt="\"\"">",
                                R.id.imageView2);
                loadImage("http://cache.soso.com/30d/img/web/logo.gif, R.id.imageView3);
                loadImage("http://csdnimg.cn/www/images/csdnindex_logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView4);
                loadImage("http://images.cnblogs.com/logo_small.gif",
                                R.id.imageView5);
        }

        private Handler handler = new Handler();

        private void loadImage(final String url, final int id) {
                handler.post(new Runnable() {
                        public void run() {
                                Drawable drawable = null;
                                try {
                                        drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(
                                                        new URL(url).openStream(), "image.gif");
                                } catch (IOException e) {
                                        Log.d("test", e.getMessage());
                                }
                                if (drawable == null) {
                                        Log.d("test", "null drawable");
                                } else {
                                        Log.d("test", "not null drawable");
                                }
                                // 为了测试缓存而模拟的网络延时
                                SystemClock.sleep(2000);
                                ((ImageView) MainActivity.this.findViewById(id))
                                                .setImageDrawable(drawable);
                        }
                });
        }
}



Handler+Thread+Message模式
这种模式使用了线程,所以可以看到异步加载的效果。
核心代码:


package ghj1976.AndroidTest;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URL;
import android.app.Activity;
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.os.SystemClock;
import android.util.Log;
import android.widget.ImageView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
                super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
                setContentView(R.layout.main);
                loadImage2("http://www.baidu.com/img/baidu_logo.gif", R.id.imageView1);
                loadImage2("http://www.chinatelecom.com.cn/images/logo_new.gif",
                                R.id.imageView2);
                loadImage2("http://cache.soso.com/30d/img/web/logo.gif", R.id.imageView3);
                loadImage2("http://csdnimg.cn/www/images/csdnindex_logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView4);
                loadImage2("http://images.cnblogs.com/logo_small.gif",
                                R.id.imageView5);
        }

        final Handler handler2 = new Handler() {
                @Override
                public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                        ((ImageView) MainActivity.this.findViewById(msg.arg1))
                                        .setImageDrawable((Drawable) msg.obj);
                }
        };

        // 采用handler+Thread模式实现多线程异步加载
        private void loadImage2(final String url, final int id) {
                Thread thread = new Thread() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {
                                Drawable drawable = null;
                                try {
                                        drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(
                                                        new URL(url).openStream(), "image.png");
                                } catch (IOException e) {
                                        Log.d("test", e.getMessage());
                                }

                                // 模拟网络延时
                                SystemClock.sleep(2000);

                                Message message = handler2.obtainMessage();
                                message.arg1 = id;
                                message.obj = drawable;
                                handler2.sendMessage(message);
                        }
                };
                thread.start();
                thread = null;
        }

}


这时候我们可以看到实现了异步加载, 界面打开时,五个ImageView都是没有图的,然后在各自线程下载完后才把图自动更新上去。
Handler+ExecutorService(线程池)+MessageQueue模式
能开线程的个数毕竟是有限的,我们总不能开很多线程,对于手机更是如此。
这个例子是使用线程池。Android拥有与Java相同的ExecutorService实现,我们就来用它。
线程池的基本思想还是一种对象池的思想,开辟一块内存空间,里面存放了众多(未死亡)的线程,池中线程执行调度由池管理器来处理。当有线程任务时,从池中取一个,执行完成后线程对象归池,这样可以避免反复创建线程对象所带来的性能开销,节省了系统的资源。
线程池的信息可以参看这篇文章:Java&Android的线程池-ExecutorService 下面的演示例子是创建一个可重用固定线程数的线程池。
核心代码

package ghj1976.AndroidTest;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.os.SystemClock;
import android.util.Log;
import android.widget.ImageView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
                super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
                setContentView(R.layout.main);
                loadImage3("http://www.baidu.com/img/baidu_logo.gif", R.id.imageView1);
                loadImage3("http://www.chinatelecom.com.cn/images/logo_new.gif",
                                R.id.imageView2);
                loadImage3("http://cache.soso.com/30d/img/web/logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView3);
                loadImage3("http://csdnimg.cn/www/images/csdnindex_logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView4);
                loadImage3("http://images.cnblogs.com/logo_small.gif",
                                R.id.imageView5);
        }

        private Handler handler = new Handler();

        private ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(5);

        // 引入线程池来管理多线程
        private void loadImage3(final String url, final int id) {
                executorService.submit(new Runnable() {
                        public void run() {
                                try {
                                        final Drawable drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(
                                                        new URL(url).openStream(), "image.png");
                                        // 模拟网络延时
                                        SystemClock.sleep(2000);
                                        handler.post(new Runnable() {
                                                public void run() {
                                                        ((ImageView) MainActivity.this.findViewById(id))
                                                                        .setImageDrawable(drawable);
                                                }
                                        });
                                } catch (Exception e) {
                                        throw new RuntimeException(e);
                                }
                        }
                });
        }
}

这里我们象第一步一样使用了 handler.post(new Runnable() {  更新前段显示当然是在UI主线程,我们还有 executorService.submit(new Runnable() { 来确保下载是在线程池的线程中。
Handler+ExecutorService(线程池)+MessageQueue+缓存模式
下面比起前一个做了几个改造:
把整个代码封装在一个类中
为了避免出现同时多次下载同一幅图的问题,使用了本地缓存
封装的类:


package ghj1976.AndroidTest;

import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.SystemClock;

public class AsyncImageLoader3 {
        // 为了加快速度,在内存中开启缓存(主要应用于重复图片较多时,或者同一个图片要多次被访问,比如在ListView时来回滚动)
        public Map<String, SoftReference<Drawable>> imageCache = new HashMap<String, SoftReference<Drawable>>();
        
        private ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(5); // 固定五个线程来执行任务
        private final Handler handler = new Handler();

        /**
         *
         * @param imageUrl
         *            图像url地址
         * @param callback
         *            回调接口
         * <a href="\"http://www.eoeandroid.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=7300\"" target="\"_blank\"">@return</a> 返回内存中缓存的图像,第一次加载返回null
         */
        public Drawable loadDrawable(final String imageUrl,
                        final ImageCallback callback) {
                // 如果缓存过就从缓存中取出数据
                if (imageCache.containsKey(imageUrl)) {
                        SoftReference<Drawable> softReference = imageCache.get(imageUrl);
                        if (softReference.get() != null) {
                                return softReference.get();
                        }
                }
                // 缓存中没有图像,则从网络上取出数据,并将取出的数据缓存到内存中
                executorService.submit(new Runnable() {
                        public void run() {
                                try {
                                        final Drawable drawable = loadImageFromUrl(imageUrl);
                                                
                                        imageCache.put(imageUrl, new SoftReference<Drawable>(
                                                        drawable));

                                        handler.post(new Runnable() {
                                                public void run() {
                                                        callback.imageLoaded(drawable);
                                                }
                                        });
                                } catch (Exception e) {
                                        throw new RuntimeException(e);
                                }
                        }
                });
                return null;
        }

        // 从网络上取数据方法
        protected Drawable loadImageFromUrl(String imageUrl) {
                try {
                        // 测试时,模拟网络延时,实际时这行代码不能有
                        SystemClock.sleep(2000);

                        return Drawable.createFromStream(new URL(imageUrl).openStream(),
                                        "image.png");

                } catch (Exception e) {
                        throw new RuntimeException(e);
                }
        }

        // 对外界开放的回调接口
        public interface ImageCallback {
                // 注意 此方法是用来设置目标对象的图像资源
                public void imageLoaded(Drawable imageDrawable);
        }
}


说明:
final参数是指当函数参数为final类型时,你可以读取使用该参数,但是无法改变该参数的值。参看:Java关键字final、static使用总结
这里使用SoftReference 是为了解决内存不足的错误(OutOfMemoryError)的,更详细的可以参看:内存优化的两个类:SoftReference 和 WeakReference
前段调用:


package ghj1976.AndroidTest;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.os.Bundle;

import android.widget.ImageView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
        @Override
        public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
                super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
                setContentView(R.layout.main);
                loadImage4("http://www.baidu.com/img/baidu_logo.gif", R.id.imageView1);
                loadImage4("http://www.chinatelecom.com.cn/images/logo_new.gif",
                                R.id.imageView2);
                loadImage4("http://cache.soso.com/30d/img/web/logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView3);
                loadImage4("http://csdnimg.cn/www/images/csdnindex_logo.gif",
                                R.id.imageView4);
                loadImage4("http://images.cnblogs.com/logo_small.gif",
                                R.id.imageView5);
        }

        private AsyncImageLoader3 asyncImageLoader3 = new AsyncImageLoader3();

        // 引入线程池,并引入内存缓存功能,并对外部调用封装了接口,简化调用过程
        private void loadImage4(final String url, final int id) {
                // 如果缓存过就会从缓存中取出图像,ImageCallback接口中方法也不会被执行
                Drawable cacheImage = asyncImageLoader3.loadDrawable(url,
                                new AsyncImageLoader3.ImageCallback() {
                                        // 请参见实现:如果第一次加载url时下面方法会执行
                                        public void imageLoaded(Drawable imageDrawable) {
                                                ((ImageView) findViewById(id))
                                                                .setImageDrawable(imageDrawable);
                                        }
                                });
                if (cacheImage != null) {
                        ((ImageView) findViewById(id)).setImageDrawable(cacheImage);
                }
        }

}
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